Project Quality Management
is a group of processes necessary to ensure that the project will satisfy customer requirements.
There are following three processes which are part of Project Quality Management.
Plan Quality Management
Perform Quality Assurance
Modern quality management complements project management. For example, both disciplines recognize the importance of:
Customer satisfaction: Understanding, evaluating, defining,and managing expectations so that customer requirements are met.
Prevention over inspection: The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting them, as revealed by inspection.
Management responsibility: Success requires the participation of all members of the team, but it remains the responsibility of management to provide the resources needed to succeed.
Continuous improvement: The plan-do-check-act cycle is the basis for quality improvement as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming.
Few Important points
The aim of quality is to ensure "Conformance to requirements" and "fitness for use".
Quality Policy defines the company goals and how to adhere to them.
Quality must be planned in and not inspected in. Prevention is more important than inspection.
In Just-In-Time (JIT) Quality, the amount of inventory is zero. The inputs are made available, just when they are required. This reduces the storage cost.
Deming suggested a process of Plan-Do-Check-Act to improve quality. According to Deming, each process should go through these steps to improve the quality.
Kaizen Theory : Apply continuous small improvements to reduce costs and ensure consistency.
Marginal Analysis : You compare the cost of incremental improvements against the increase in revenue made from quality improvements. Optimal quality is reached when cost of improvements equals the costs to achieve quality.
Rule of seven : In control charts, if there are seven points on one side of mean, then an assignable cause must be found.
Prevention vs. Inspection The cost of preventing mistakes/defects is much less than the cost of correcting them later when identified by inspection.
Pareto Diagram: A histogram ordered by frequency of occurrence that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.
The process of Analogous Estimation involves looking at the history of past projects, and use them to make estimates.
The value of sigma of Normal Distribution are given below. These are important for the exam.
Normal Distribution Sigma values Sigma Percentage covered
One sigma 68.26%
Two sigma 95.46%
Three sigma 99.73%
Six sigma 99.99%
1. Plan Quality Management
2. Perform Quality Assurance
3. Control Quality
These questions are randomly taken from TechFAQ360 PMP success kit
Question - 25Your team has delivered phase one to the client. Based on client feedback and issues found by client - you decide to do some introspection to identify root causes so that the subsequent deliverables do not face the same issues.What techniques would you choose to apply ?
1.Perform Quality Audits
2.Review Activity Network Diagrams
3.Lookup Process decision program charts
Correct Answers are : 4
Quality Audits are meant to ascertain if the project activities confirm to the policies and procedures - so it is not the correct answer.Activity Network diagrams are used for scheduling while Process decision program charts are used to aniticipate intermediate steps . The correct answer is Process Analysis - which is used to identify a problem , identify the cause of the problem and develop preventive actions.
Question - 26You are managing a project. This project must satisfy industry standards in order to be accepted by the customer. You and your team have studied the requirements and have created a plan to implement the deliverables with the level of quality. This process is called ________.
A. Quality Control
B. Quality assurance
C. Plan Quality Management
D. All of the above
C is the correct answer.
Plan Quality Management: Identifying the quality standards that are relevant to the project and determining how to meet them.