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Q.What is garbage collection and the purpose of garbage collection in Java?

The JVM's heap stores all objects created by an executing Java program.
Objects are created by Java's "new" operator, and memory for new objects is allocated on the heap at run time.
Garbage collection is the process of automatically freeing objects that are no longer referenced by the program.
This frees the programmer from having to keep track of when to free allocated memory,
thereby preventing many potential bugs and headaches.
The name "garbage collection" implies that objects that are no longer needed by the program are "garbage" and can be thrown away.
Other word we can say memory recycling.
When an object is no longer referenced by the program, the heap space it occupies must be recycled so that the space is available for subsequent new objects.
The garbage collector must somehow determine which objects are no longer referenced by the program and make available the heap space occupied by such unreferenced objects.
In the process of freeing unreferenced objects, the garbage collector must run any finalizers of objects being freed.

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